Miscarriages also split at times. Early miscarriage is abortion before the 13th week of pregnancy. A miscarriage that occurs after the 16th week of pregnancy is called a late miscarriage. If the miscarriage is due to natural causes, then the doctor speaks of spontaneous abortion. On the other hand, there are so-called artificial abortions, that is, artificially induced abortions through pharmacological or chemical measures. An example of this is abortion.
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A woman’s treatment after a miscarriage essentially depends on the type of miscarriage. Therapy depends on how far the miscarriage has progressed or whether it is still possible to get pregnant.
Miscarriage (Abortion) occurs when a pregnancy ends before the baby is viable. Most miscarriages happen before the pregnancy is discovered. The cause of miscarriage cannot always be found. Here’s everything you need to know about the causes and risks of miscarriage.
The “abortion pill” is the generic name for two different drugs used to terminate a pregnancy: mifepristone and misoprostol.
First you take a pill called mifepristone. A hormone called progesterone is needed for the pregnancy to grow normally. Mifepristone blocks the body’s own progesterone, thereby halting the progression of the pregnancy.
You will then take another medicine, misoprostol, either immediately or up to 48 hours later. This medicine causes cramps and bleeding to empty your uterus. It’s like having a really heavy, crampy period, and the process is akin to an early miscarriage. If you do not have any bleeding within 24 hours of taking the second medicine, contact your nurse or doctor.
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Causes and Risks: Disorders in previous pregnancies (eg miscarriage, preeclampsia), maternal diseases, obesity, drug and alcohol abuse, smoking, stress, chromosomal disorders, infections, pollutants, immune response, hormonal disorders, physical causes
Symptoms: Vaginal bleeding, abdominal pain, pregnancy symptoms may subside
Diagnosis: ultrasound examination, gynecological examination, measurement of -hCG value
Treatment: bed rest if there is a risk of miscarriage, anti-constriction medication, treatment (suction or curettage) of the uterus if there is evidence of miscarriage, medication to induce labor if the abortion is late
Prognosis and course: depends on the cause, concomitant diseases and timing of treatment. After a miscarriage, there is usually a possibility of getting pregnant again.
Prevention: There is no general preventive measure. A healthy lifestyle, preventive medical screening and adequate treatment of concomitant diseases contribute to a healthy course of pregnancy.
What is Miscarriage?
In the event of a miscarriage, the pregnancy ends before the child is viable. A baby is considered clinically viable after the 23rd week of pregnancy and weighing 400 g at birth. If the pregnancy ends after this time, the baby speaks of premature birth if it is born alive.
In such a situation, special measures are taken to keep the child alive. This includes drugs for lung maturation and intensive care treatment. However, if the baby has already died in the womb, it is called a stillbirth.
Miscarriages also split at times. Early miscarriage is abortion before the 13th week of pregnancy. A miscarriage that occurs after the 16th week of pregnancy is called a late miscarriage.
If the miscarriage is due to natural causes, then the doctor speaks of spontaneous abortion. On the other hand, there are so-called artificial abortions, that is, artificially induced abortions through pharmacological or chemical measures. An example of this is abortion.
Some women have recurrent miscarriages. Doctors then talk about habitual abortion.
According to the guidelines of the European expert societies, it is a habitual abortion if a woman has had three or more consecutive miscarriages before reaching the 22nd week of pregnancy. The American Society for Reproductive Medicine recommends habitual abortion after two consecutive miscarriages.
About 10 to 15 percent of medically diagnosed pregnancies end in miscarriage. There are also pregnancies that can only be detected in the laboratory. It shows an increase to a certain value (ß-hCG), but there are still no clinical signs. If you include these pregnancies, the miscarriage rate is around 50 to 70 percent.
It has also been observed that the risk of miscarriage increases with every loss. The age of the mother also plays a role. The chances of miscarriage increase with age. A 40-year-old woman has a 40 percent chance of miscarriage.
Missed abortion: at which week of pregnancy is it most common?
The so-called missed abortion (also missed abortion or missed miscarriage) occurs mainly by the twelfth week of pregnancy. Typical symptoms of miscarriage such as bleeding is absent and the dead fetus remains in the uterus.
Father’s risk factors
Not only the mother, but the father also provides risk factors for miscarriage. Poor sperm count increases the risk of miscarriage. In case of increased miscarriage, a spermiogram can provide information. The presence, number and motility of sperm are assessed. Studies have shown that the likelihood of changes in spermatozoa increases with age.
Risk factors immune system
There are disorders in the mother’s immune system that favor abortion. In the most critical case, the body’s defenses attack the fertilized egg cell. Transplantation usually doesn’t happen at all. If it does, it is defective and ends in early miscarriage.
A blood group factor, the so-called Rhesus factor, sometimes plays a role in miscarriage. If the pregnant woman is rhesus negative and the unborn child is rhesus positive, the mother’s immune system produces antibodies. In the next pregnancy, these antibodies lead to a defense response against the unborn baby and trigger a miscarriage.
To prevent this type of miscarriage, gynecologists test pregnant women for related antibodies. To prevent the formation of antibodies, affected pregnant women receive an injection (so-called anti-D prophylaxis).
fetal risk factors
The most common cause of miscarriage is genetic changes in the fetus. The genetic information is located on the chromosomes in the cell nucleus. Half of the chromosomes come from the mother and half from the father. If there is a deviation in the number or size of these chromosomes, it leads to malformation in the fetus.
As a result, viability is limited or non-existent. The embryo dies and a miscarriage occurs.
Risk factors doctor
In some cases, medical interventions also lead to miscarriage. radiation, such as that is used in computed tomography, damages the genetic material of the fetus, up to and including miscarriage. In addition, certain drugs or certain vaccinations (so-called live vaccines) increase the chances of miscarriage.
The operation should also be avoided during pregnancy, as the operation and any anesthesia that may be needed increases the risk of miscarriage. Methods to detect malformations in the baby, such as examination of amniotic fluid (amniocentesis) or placenta (chorionic villus biopsy), also increase the risk of miscarriage.
Risk factors Smoking, alcohol and drugs
Studies show that if the mother smokes, drinks alcohol or takes drugs during pregnancy, it can lead to serious developmental disorders or malformations in the fetus or fetus. Excessive alcohol consumption is the most common cause of early miscarriage.
Risk factor stress
Mental stress increases the risk of miscarriage. An imbalance in the immune system and hormone balance disrupts pregnancy. On the one hand, low levels of hormones (especially progesterone) are observed, which maintain pregnancy. On the other hand, there is an increase in immune cells, which can lead to miscarriage.
In the early 1990s, an association between anxiety and increased rates of miscarriage was discovered. Above all, fears during pregnancy and childbirth affect the chances of miscarriage.
Accidents or similar serious traumatic events are also considered potential triggers of miscarriage.
Examination and diagnosis
As soon as a pregnant woman notices typical symptoms of miscarriage, she should see her gynecologist as soon as possible. The doctor will first examine the abdomen thoroughly to determine whether there is contraction or pain in the abdomen. For example, in an infected abortion, the uterus is tender.
The doctor examines the vagina and cervix. His special focus is on the cervix. The doctor evaluates whether it is closed or painful. In case of vaginal bleeding, he looks for the cause.
It is also important to locate the bleeding site. In an incomplete miscarriage, parts of the abortion tissue are still present in the uterus or cervix.
However, miscarriage cannot be diagnosed by examining the cervix alone. Bleeding or labor pain does not always accompany a miscarriage (eg with a “missed miscarriage” or a missed miscarriage). And the cervix often remains closed even when there is a risk of premature birth.
Therefore an ultrasound examination is necessary if a miscarriage is suspected. From this it can be found out whether the child remains in the mother’s womb or not. The unborn baby’s heartbeat can be seen in an ultrasound scan from about the sixth to seventh week of pregnancy.
If, for example, a bruise behind the placenta is the cause of an impending miscarriage, this can be shown with the help of ultrasound.
If the ultrasound examination does not give any obvious signs, the pregnancy hormone -hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) is prescribed at regular intervals. Normally, this value continues to increase, especially at the beginning of pregnancy. In case of miscarriage, there is no increase in -hCG or the value is already low.
In addition, laboratory controls provide indications of an increased risk of miscarriage. A blood count, for example, shows not only typical signs of infection but also anemia.
Early pregnancy symptoms
Early pregnancy symptoms that can occur in the early days of pregnancy are also called uncertain signs of pregnancy by doctors. These signs are similar to typical symptoms of the second half of the menstrual cycle and can therefore be easily confused. In addition, they do not occur in all pregnant women and vary in severity from woman to woman.
the most common side effects of a drug abortion procedure are:
- abdominal pain of varying intensity (this is caused by contraction of the uterus and, for this reason, is considered normal);
- nausea and vomiting;
- vaginal bleeding that may continue for several days after treatment ends;
- Gastrointestinal cramps
- Other possible side effects of greater severity, which may actually be considered complications of treatment, include:
- pelvic inflammatory disease.
Clearly, the above are just some of the side effects that can occur after administration of abortion medication and prostaglandin analogs. In addition, it should be noted that the type and intensity of side effects may vary according to the week of pregnancy during which the drugs are taken, according to each woman’s individual sensitivity to the drugs administered and even according to that conditions. The emotional and psychological experiences in which the patient finds himself.
A woman’s treatment after a miscarriage essentially depends on the type of miscarriage. Therapy depends on how far the miscarriage has progressed or whether it is still possible to get pregnant.
If there is a risk of miscarriage, the pregnant woman is advised to take bed rest. Vaginal examination should be avoided. The doctor usually monitors the condition of the unborn child to treat a miscarriage
If the doctor has definitely prescribed a miscarriage, then in many cases a cure is performed. In the case of an incomplete miscarriage, the parts of the pregnancy that remain in the uterus (such as the placenta) are removed. If this is not done, there is a risk of continued bleeding or serious infection, including blood poisoning (sepsis).
Abortion without treatment is possible from 24th week of pregnancy followed by complete abortion. This is only necessary if it is suspected that all parts of the pregnancy have indeed been terminated. Even if the bleeding does not stop after a miscarriage or the uterus does not contract afterwards, an intervention is still necessary. This is to avoid complications after a miscarriage.
Abortion instead of medicat cure
In the case of the so-called wind egg, that is, a pregnancy in which no child develops, and in the case of a delay in early abortion until the twelfth week of pregnancy, a scraping is necessary. At a later date, drugs are administered earlier. These aim to loosen and widen the cervix and stimulate the muscles of the uterus. Thus the dead embryo is thrown out.
Doctors also give the same medicine before surgical removal. This reduces the risk of injury to maternal organs from surgical instruments.
Read more about treatments
Read more about treatments that can help here:
Curriculum and Forecast
If a pregnant woman through abortion If I lose my baby, it is important that the doctor act very carefully and consistently. She should stop bleeding quickly, but at the same time ensure that the condition for subsequent pregnancies is maintained.
There is a risk of damage to the lining of the uterus due to careless scraping. This can affect the chances of getting pregnant again.
It is especially important to find out the cause of the miscarriage. This lowers the risk of similar complications if you become pregnant again. In principle, another pregnancy is possible after a miscarriage.
Pregnant after miscarriage
After experiencing a miscarriage, many women worry about a second pregnancy. Read everything you need to know about getting pregnant after a miscarriage here.
If germs enter the uterus after a miscarriage, infection occurs. Affected women develop fever between 38 and 39 Celsius. In some cases there is bleeding and pain. Infection mainly occurs after improper evacuation of the abortion.
In the case of this so-called infected abortion, transmission in the blood must be prevented at all costs, otherwise there is a risk of life-threatening blood poisoning and coagulation disorders. So the affected women are given antibiotics. The uterus is not examined until the patient is free from fever.
In addition to the medical aspects of abortion, it is also important to consider the mental state of those affected. After experiencing a miscarriage, affected women often fear that if they get pregnant again, they will still have a miscarriage.
For this reason, it is important that a doctor explains the possible causes and risks of miscarriage. After a spontaneous miscarriage, there is an 85 percent chance that another pregnancy will be normal.
Can abortion be prevented?
There is no general way to prevent miscarriage. However, some factors contribute to a healthy pregnancy, including:
Healthy lifestyle with balanced diet.
a healthy body weight
Avoid harmful substances such as alcohol, nicotine or drugs
Treat existing diseases such as diabetes mellitus, thyroid dysfunction or high blood pressure
Regular preventive check-ups at the gynecologist – this way, possible infections can be detected and treated at an early stage
It is better to avoid sports with high risk of injury during pregnancy.
Miscarriage – when the pregnancy ends abruptly
Miscarriage is one of the most painful experiences a pregnant woman can experience. The anticipation of a child and the ensuing family happiness turns from moment to moment into deep sadness and despair. If the pregnancy ends prematurely and the fetus weighs less than 500 grams, doctors talk of a miscarriage (miscarriage). It is divided into early and late miscarriages, usually from the 13th week of pregnancy after the birth of a stillborn child weighing up to 500 grams.
Miscarriage: abrupt termination of pregnancy
If the fetus dies in the womb and its weight exceeds 500 grams, it is called stillbirth. Affected parents have coined the term star children for their unborn children. Premature miscarriage can also be described as a star child. There is also a burial obligation from 500 grams.
The causes of miscarriage are non-specific and often involve several factors. These usually include genetic anomalies or pre-existing conditions in the mother, such as diabetes or high blood pressure. But excessive consumption of cigarettes and alcohol can also lead to premature pregnancy. In Germany, 1 to 3 percent of pregnant women are affected by miscarriage after the 12th week of pregnancy.
symptoms of miscarriage
In the case of miscarriage, first a distinction must be made between the so-called early and late stages. Miscarriage is especially common in the first few weeks of pregnancy. It usually goes completely unnoticed and manifests in bleeding, which women attribute to their menstruation.
Miscarriages in the early stages often result in malformations, such as genetic chromosomal abnormalities. These lead to natural rejection.
Miscarriage between 13 and approx. The 22nd week of pregnancy is known as a late-stage (= late miscarriage) miscarriage. For pregnant women, an abortion at this point is particularly difficult to process and potentially painful.
In addition to heavy bleeding, sometimes accompanied by blood clots, symptoms can also include abdominal pain and abdominal cramps.
If you notice any signs of miscarriage, you should see your doctor or go to the hospital immediately.
There, first an ultrasound is used to determine whether the bleeding and pain are actually due to a miscarriage. However, a miscarriage can also occur in which the typical symptoms such as cramping and bleeding may not appear at all.
In this case, doctors speak of a so-called missed miscarriage, which is often discovered only by chance during an ultrasound examination.
Important: Not every bleeding during pregnancy is necessarily a miscarriage. Therefore, immediately consult your doctor to clarify the possible causes.
After a miscarriage: Treatment and possible options
If a miscarriage occurs, tissue remnants usually remain in the uterus by the 8th week of pregnancy. Expulsion can be started with medicine to prevent infection in pregnant woman. Alternatively, women can wait for the body to eliminate them on its own with heavy bleeding.
This process can sometimes take a few weeks and is only possible in the early stages of pregnancy. This natural process often helps women say goodbye to their unborn child.
However, if the level of the pregnancy hormone hCG does not drop significantly even after bleeding or if there is a risk of infection, a treatment should be performed. This minor surgical procedure is performed under general anesthesia.
However, if a miscarriage is diagnosed after the 16th week of pregnancy, the unborn baby should be delivered with the help of labor-inducing drugs. The birth of a child that is not viable or has already died is almost unbearable for the mother. Nevertheless, the process of natural birth helps to cope better with this trauma. In addition, caesarean section would mean an additional risk for the mother.
In recent years, the term star kids has been coined for abortion. Far from the medical and impersonal concepts of abortion and stillbirth, parents may appropriately mourn their dead child. In addition, mothers and fathers express the bond and importance of their unborn child with the word star child.
Star kids may be buried in lovingly designed graveyards to better deal with deep pain. It gives parents a place to mourn their child.
Incidentally, it has been possible for parents to register their unborn child’s name with the registry office after an abortion since 2013. Star Kids is officially brought into existence. In the past, abortions weighing less than 500 grams were denied all individual rights and were “disposed of” by the clinic.
help after miscarriage
After a miscarriage, parents are deeply saddened by the loss of their child. Parents deal with pain very differently: Some hold back and keep the silence at home. Other couples intentionally seek to contact parents who have had the same traumatic experience.
No matter how much you grieve your lost child, it is important that the pain
The is to be processed consciously and not suppressed.
Even though the move is difficult for many parents: A self-help group can be one way to better deal with pain.
Experiences and ideas can be exchanged with like-minded people and can also give hope for the aftermath of grief. Your city or municipality can help you find a local support group.
If going in public still takes you too much effort, you will find many forums on the Internet on the topic of abortion and star kids where you can anonymously exchange information with concerned parents. Forums on this topic can be found on the Internet, for example here:
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